Summary: Problem with _XtInitialize from X11R4 on SPARCstation

From: Mike Hannon; UCD Physics; (916)-752-4966 (MIKE@UCDHEP.UCDAVIS.EDU)
Date: Tue Dec 17 1991 - 21:02:11 CST

I recently wrote that I was having trouble linking an application (spice) to
the X11R4 libraries that I had just constructed. Specifically, I got the error
message: Undefined symbol: _XtInitialize

I have so far received eight respones, which I greatly appreciate. The
responses fall into three general categories:

(1) The Xt stuff is simply not required, and including the library somehow
    confuses the linker. Try removing the reference to libXt and see what
    happens. This was actually the most-popular form of response. In my
    case it turns out not to work. I get:

cc -o spice spice.o ../lib/FTE.a ../lib/DEV.a ../lib/CKT.a ../lib/CP.a ../lib/H
LP.a ../lib/INP.a ../lib/MFB.a ../lib/NI.a ../lib/SMP.a ../lib/MISC.a -L/usr/lo
cal/lib/X11 -lXaw -lXau -lXmu -lX11 -lm -ltermlib
ld: Undefined symbol
*** Error code 2

    I.e., it appears that spice *does* use the Xt stuff, although others may
    not, of course.

(2) If I have OpenWindows installed, there may be some confusion between the
    vanilla X that I built and the OpenWindows stuff. I *do* have OW installed,
    but I thought that the -L option was supposed to force the linker to look
    in the specified directory *first*. I haven't ruled this out as a possible
    source of the problem, but it doesn't seem the likely culprit.

(3) X11R5 is better than X11R4, and, who knows, it may solve this problem.
    Why not install it? The answer is that I assumed that little of the
    free software that is floating around the net would have been compiled
    and linked against R5 at this time. As I don't (yet) intend to make use
    of all the X11 stuff, only libraries and header files, I picked R4.
    If and when I start using the window managers and other executables, I'll
    try the R5 stuff.

I have ``solved'' the problem that I had just by getting rid of the Xt
shareable library, thus forcing a link against the standard random library.
I.e., when I built X11R4, I got the following libraries:


I just did:

This is not my ideal solution, but I'm in a bit of a rush to get this program
(spice) ready for a lab next quarter. If anybody can shed any light on the
real problem here, please let me know.

By the way, I noticed something else peculiar in all this. When I started to
write this summary, I redid the ``make'', just to get the exact form of the
error. When I did so, I got:

        ld: Undefined symbol
        *** Error code 2

This is almost, but not quite, what I reported initially, which was: Undefined symbol: _XtInitialize

I'm not aware that I changed any of the linker options during all this
thrashing around. Why did I get in one case and ld in the other?


                                        - Mike
Mike Hannon mike@ucdhep (Bitnet)
ucdhep::mike (HEPnet) 42385::mike (HEPnet) (Internet) 916-752-4966 (Telephone)

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